What Is a Posterior Cruciate Ligament (PCL)?
The posterior cruciate ligament is an important ligament in the middle of the knee which helps stabilise the knee during movement.
What Are the Symptoms of a Posterior Cruciate Ligament (PCL) Tear?
Patients with a torn posterior cruciate ligament may feel that the knee is unstable and may often give way, especially when descending a flight of stairs or when trying to stop when running.
One may also experience pain over the front of the knee due to excessive pressure on the kneecap.
What Are the Treatment Options Available for a Posterior Cruciate Ligament (PCL) Tear?
Most patients with PCL tears do well with physiotherapy to strengthen the knee. In cases where the knee is still unstable or painful despite physiotherapy, surgery may be required.
This is usually in the form of a PCL reconstruction. PCL reconstruction is a keyhole surgery to replace the torn PCL with a new one. Some patients may be amenable to a keyhole PCL repair if the injury is detected early enough.
What Is a Medial Collateral Ligament (MCL)?
The medial collateral ligament (MCL) is an important stabilising ligament over the inner side of the knee.
This is commonly injured when the knee splits out sideways, which can occur during activities such as slipping on a wet floor or skiing.
What Are the Symptoms of a Medial Collateral Ligament (MCL) Tear?
At the time of injury, one will experience pain and swelling over the inner side of the knee, particularly when putting weight on the knee and walking.
What Are the Treatment Options Available for a Medial Collateral Ligament (MCL) Tear?
Mild tears of the MCL usually heal well with a rigid knee brace to protect the ligament while it heals. Physiotherapy will also help with more rapid recovery.
In more severe cases, surgery may be required to repair or reconstruct the torn ligament.
What Is It a Posterolateral Corner (PLC) & Lateral Collateral Ligament?
The posterolateral corner (PLC) of the knee is a collection of ligaments and tendons over the outer-back part of the knee.
Injuries to the PLC often include tears to the lateral collateral ligament and the posterior cruciate ligament.
What Are the Symptoms of a Posterolateral Corner & Lateral Collateral Ligament?
At the time of injury, one will experience pain and swelling. Damage to multiple ligaments in the knee can give rise to the feeling of instability of the knee.
What Are the Treatment Options Available for a Posterolateral Corner & Lateral Collateral Ligament?
As with most mild ligament injuries, bracing and physiotherapy may suffice to improve symptoms and function in the knee.
However, with persistent symptoms of instability, surgery in the form of ligament reconstructions will be necessary to stabilise the knee. In cases with multiple ligament injuries, early surgery is beneficial to restore knee stability and function.
What Is Patella Tendinopathy?
The patella tendon is the tendon that connects the kneecap to the front of the shin bone.
Activities that cause repetitive stress to the tendon can cause wear and tear or inflammation of the tendon.
What Are the Symptoms of Patella Tendinopathy?
One may experience pain and tenderness below the knee cap, particularly with squatting, jumping, or running.
What Are the Treatment Options Available for Patella Tendinopathy?
Most patients respond well to a period of rest and physiotherapy. A patella tendon brace may also help reduce the symptoms of pain.
What Is It Quadriceps & Hamstring Tendinopathy?
The quadriceps and hamstring are tendons that connect the large thigh muscles over the front and back of the knee to the kneecap and shin bone, respectively.
Tendinopathy of these tendons is often caused by overuse or strain.
What Are the Symptoms of Quadriceps & Hamstring Tendinopathy?
One may experience pain over these tendons, particularly on exertion such as when climbing stairs, running, jumping or even getting out of a chair.
What Are the Treatment Options Available for Quadriceps & Hamstring Tendinopathy?
Most patients will recover with a period of rest and physiotherapy. However, in more severe cases, our doctors may recommend surgery for quadriceps and hamstring tendinopathy.
What Is Iliotibial Band Friction (ITB) Syndrome?
The iliotibial band (ITB) is a tight band that runs down the outer side of the thigh. It starts above the hip joint and attaches over the outer side of the knee.
Iliotibial band friction syndrome occurs when a tight ITB causes inflammation over the outer side of the knee.
What Are the Symptoms of Iliotibial Band Friction (ITB) Syndrome?
Patients may experience pain, snapping or grinding over the outer side of the knee. This is reported to be felt particularly with bending of the knee.
What Are the Treatment Options Available for Iliotibial Band Friction (ITB) Syndrome?
Physiotherapy is the mainstay of treatment for Iliotibial Band Friction (ITB) Syndrome.
In persistent cases, cortisone steroid injections or even surgery may be required to resolve this problem.
What Is Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome (PFPS)?
Patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS) occurs when one develops pain from cartilage damage between the kneecap and the end of the thigh bone.
What Are the Symptoms of Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome (PFPS)?
One may experience pain and grinding under the kneecap. This pain and discomfort is usually aggravated by squatting or climbing stairs.
What Are the Treatment Options Available for Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome (PFPS)?
PFPS often occurs due to imbalances in the thigh muscles, giving rise to the kneecap not moving properly over the front of the thigh bone.
Physiotherapy treatment aims to release tight tissue and recondition the hip, thigh, and knee muscles to correct the kneecap movement.
What Are Cartilage Ulcers?
Cartilage is the smooth covering over the joints which allow two bones to glide over each other with friction or wear and tear.
Cartilage ulcers occur when the cartilage is damaged, resulting in the underlying bone being exposed.
What Are the Symptoms of Cartilage Ulcers?
Patients with cartilage ulcers may feel grinding or clicking sensations in the knee when moving the knee. When the underlying bone is exposed, damage to the bone may result in pain in that area of the knee.
What Are the Treatment Options Available for Cartilage Ulcers?
Small or mild ulcers may be adequately treated with physiotherapy, activity modification or medication.
As most ulcers do not heal well by themselves, surgery is often required to repair the cartilage in patients whose symptoms persist or are more severe.
What Is Rheumatoid Arthritis?
Rheumatoid arthritis occurs when the body’s immune system attacks and damages multiple joints in the body.
What Are the Symptoms of Rheumatoid Arthritis?
Patients suffering from rheumatoid arthritis may experience pain and swelling in multiple joints, even when at rest.
What Are the Treatment Options Available for Rheumatoid Arthritis?
Patients with rheumatoid arthritis will need to consult a rheumatologist to assess the severity.
The mainstay of treatment is medication to control the immune system. In badly damaged joints, surgery may be required.
What Is Gout & Pseudogout?
Gout and pseudogout are types of joint problems in which crystals form in the joints, resulting in pain and swelling.
What Are the Symptoms of Gout & Pseudogout?
Pain and swelling are common symptoms. This is often related to specific triggers such as certain foods and drinks.
What Are the Treatment Options Available Gout & Pseudogout?
The long-term treatment of gout and pseudogout is with medication to control the crystal deposition in the joints.
Steroid injections may sometimes help in resolving acute exacerbations. In severe cases, surgery may be required.
What Is Bow-Leg?
Bow-leggedness is the physical appearance of the lower limbs adopting an ‘O’ shape due to the curving in at the knee joint.
This may sometimes be present from when one is young but can also develop when the inner sides of the knees wear out, as is often the case with knee osteoarthritis.
What Are the Symptoms of Bow-Leg?
Bow-leggedness on its own does not cause symptoms.
However, due to the shape of the knee, there is excessive stress on the bone and cartilage over the inner side of the knee. This can result in damage to the cartilage and meniscus (shock absorber) and cracks in the bone.
One will then experience pain and swelling in the knee that is worse with standing and walking.
What Are the Treatment Options Available for Bow-Leg?
Should one develop symptoms, a doctor will need to assess for underlying injury.
In younger patients, damage to the meniscus and cartilage may be repaired. However, the bone will often need to be realigned to ensure that this overloaded part of the knee does not undergo the same stress and damage again in the future.
This surgical procedure is called an osteotomy, whereby the bone is cut, realigned, and fixed in place. In older individuals with osteoarthritis, a joint replacement will be able to realign the limb while at the same time resolving the symptoms of pain and swelling.
What Is a Knock-Knee?
Knock-Knee is a physical appearance where both knees touch each other, and the feet cannot be placed side by side when standing straight.
This is usually developmental from when one is growing up, although it may also occur after significant damage to the knee or meniscus (shock absorber).
What Are the Symptoms of Knock-Knee?
Knock-knees in themselves are not symptomatic. However, should one develop damage to the meniscus, cartilage or bone due to overloading of the outer side of the knee, then symptoms of pain and swelling may appear.
What Are the Treatment Options Available for Knock-Knee?
Patients with significant pain and swelling will need to be assessed for underlying damage to the meniscus, cartilage and bone.
Repair of these tissues in the young individual is possible, but a surgical realignment of the bone to straighten the limb will be necessary to protect the knee from a repeat injury in the future.
Older patients with associated osteoarthritis may benefit from a joint replacement to help resolve the symptoms and to realign the limb.
Find out more about
- Ligament injuries
- Anterior cruciate ligament
- Posterior cruciate ligament
- Medial collateral ligament
- Posterolateral corner and lateral collateral ligament
- Tendon and soft tissue injuries
- Patella tendinopathy
- Quadriceps and Hamstring tendinopathy
- Iliotibial band friction syndrome
- Patellofemoral pain syndrome
- Meniscus and cartilage
- Meniscus tears
- Cartilage ulcers
- Patella (kneecap) dislocations
- Rheumatoid Arthritis
- Malalignment with knee compartment overload
- Fractures around the knee
- Anterior cruciate ligament surgery
- ACL Repair
- Selective bundle reconstruction
- ACL repair and ligament augmentation
- Remnant preserving ACL reconstruction
- ACL reconstruction
- Revision ACL reconstruction
- Other ligament Surgery
- Posterior cruciate ligament reconstruction
- Medial collateral ligament repair/reconstruction
- Lateral collateral ligament/Posterolateral corner repair/reconstruction
- Multiligament reconstruction
- Revision ligament reconstruction
- Meniscus surgery
- Meniscus repair
- Allograft Meniscal transplantation
- Microfracture +/- augmentation with hyaluronic acid/collagen
- Osteoarticular transfer system surgery
- Patella Instability Surgery
- Medial patellofemoral ligament reconstuction
- Tibial tubercle osteotomy
- Arthroscopy for other soft tissue conditions of the knee
- Iliotibial band friction syndrome
- Plica Syndrome
- Patella tendinopathy
- Patellofemoral pain syndrome
- Trauma/Fractures around the knee
- Distal Femur fracture fixation
- Tibial Plateau fracture fixation
- Patella fracture fixation
- Degenerative Conditions of the knee
- Corrective osteotomies around the knee
- Unicompartmental knee replacement
- Total Knee replacement
- Revision total knee replacement